Showing posts with the label Hardness

Important Chemical Characteristics of Drinking Water

Chemical Characteristics of Drinking Water Chemical Characteristics H2O is the chemical formula for water. Water's capacity to "stick" to itself and other surfaces is due to its unusual form, which has both hydrogen atoms on the same side of the oxygen atom. The hydrogen atoms provide a positive electrical charge, whereas the oxygen atom produces a negative electrical charge. Total Dissolved Solids (<500) Total solids can be found by evaporating a sample of water and weighing the dry residue left. Suspended solids can be found by filtering a water sample through Whatman filter paper No.44 The maximum number of solids that can be present in water is usually regulated at 500 parts per million (ppm). pH (6.5 to 8.5) It is measure by hydrogen ion concentration in water. It is measure by Potentiometer and Colorimetric method Alkalinity & Acidity Alkalinity is caused by bicarbonates of Ca & Mg and carbonates, hydroxides of Ca, Mg, Na, K. Alkalinity effect

11 important 1 Liners from the Strength of Materials (SOM)

1 liners from the Strength of Materials in Civil Engineering Important 1 liners from the strength of materials are as under, Endurance Limit The Endurance Limit is the stress threshold at which a substance has a high chance of not collapsing under reversal of stress... Or, Endurance Limit is the stress level at which a substance cracks under a significant number of stress reversals... Ductility The maximum amount of pressure that can be extracted from a material until it cracks. Malleability The ability of a material to be distorted or dispersed in a variety of ways. Compressive forces are mostly to blame when rolling, pushing, or hammering. Creep The substance undergoes more displacement with the progression of time when continuously loaded past the Elastic limit. Fatigue Degradation of a material caused by repetitive periods of stress or strain leads to gradual cracking and ultimately fracture. Tenacity The ability to withstand fracture when subjected to a tensile load. Toughness Up