Building Material and Construction (BMC)

Notes on Building Material and Construction (in short form, BMC)

Building Material and Construction (BMC)

Common Building Materials from Building Material and Construction are

  • Cement

  • Lime

  • Aggregates

  • Mortar

  • Admixture

  • Concrete

  • Bricks

  • Stones

  • Steel

  • Timber

  • Miscellaneous


  • Cement is an organic building material with a binding property of construction that was invented by Mr. Joseph Aspedin in the years 1824-1825.

  • Calcareous Compounds (Compounds containing Ca, Hg) and Argillaceous Compounds make up the majority of cement (Compounds having Silica, Aluminium Oxides)

  • Examples of Calcareous Compounds are Limestones, Cement Rocks, Chalk, Marine Shell, Alkali Waste

  • Examples of Argillaceous Compounds are the Clay, Slate, Ash

  • OPC's Different Constituents (i.e Ordinary Portland Cement)

    • Lime (CaO - 62% to 67%)

      • It gives cement its strength and stability.

      • If there is so much lime in the mortar, it becomes unsound, allowing it to spread and then disintegrate.

      • A lack of lime decreases the strength of the cement and allows it to settle easily.

    • Silica (SiO2 - 17% to 25%)

      • If there is a surplus, the cement's strength increases, but the cement's setting time increases as well.

      • It also gives strength to the cement.

    • Alumina (Al2O3 - 3% to 8%)

      • It gives the cement a quick-setting property.

      • It serves as a flux, lowering the clinkering temperature.

      • It weakens the cement if there is an excessive amount of it.

    • Calcium Sulphate (CaSO4 - 3% to 4%)

      • It's usually added in the shape of gypsum, which is CaSO4-2H2O in most cases.

      • It aids in extending the cement's initial setting time.

    • Iron Oxide (Fe2O3 - 3% to 4%)

      • It gives cement its resilience, toughness, and color.

    • Magnesia (MgO - 1% to 3%)

      • It gives cement strength, toughness, and color, but too much of it renders the cement unsound.

    • Sulphur (S - 1% to 3%)

      • Sulphur in cement causes volume variations in the material, which causes it to be unstable.

    • Alkali (Na2O, K2O - 0.2% to 1%)

      • Alkalies in the cement produce efflorescence, which causes stains to appear on the surface of the structure in which it is used for building.

      • As alkalies react with aggregates, they expand, causing them to disintegrate.

      • Alkalies also help cement paste to set faster.


  • As all the above-mentioned cement materials are intergraded and burned, they combine to create a complex chemical compound known as BOGUES COMPOUND, which is responsible for the cement's properties.

Kumar Bhanushali

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